Is beauty simply in the eye of the beholder, or do all the beholders’ brains have something in common? Is there an objective side to beauty? Plato certainly seemed to think so. His view was that beauty was an inherent property that all beautiful objects possess, irrespective of whether someone likes it or not.
To him, beauty in the world stemmed from an ideal version of Beauty that real objects can only aspire to. A biologist might instead suggest that the objective side of beauty stems from built-in predispositions for certain features, colours, shapes or proportions.
The opposing view is that art is a fully subjective enterprise and our preferences are shaped by our values and experiences. The real answer is likely to lie somewhere in the middle – after all, art students learn basic common skills such as proportion, perspective and symmetry before embarking on their own stylistic journeys.
Artists, critics and gallery visitors can argue about this question all they like, but some clearer answers have now emerged from three researchers in Italy, arguably the home of the some of the world’s most beautiful art. Cinzia Di Dio, Emiliano Macaluso and Giacomo Rizzolatti from the University of Parma have brought the tools of the modern neuroscientist into the debate.